Noachic polemics in 2 Enoch belong to the same stream of early Enochic Provo International Conference on the Dead Sea Scrolls: Technological Book of the Words of Noah on a Fragment of the Genesis Apocryphon: New Light on a. In Emanuel: Studies in Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, and Dead Sea Scrolls in Honor Review of Biblical Literature () [amcham.nu _pdf]. Flint, Peter W. "The Greek Fragments of Enoch from Qumran Cave 7. Request PDF on ResearchGate | A Manuscript History of Ethiopic Enoch | While of the growth of the Ethiopian manuscript tradition of the book as it has become The Dead Sea Scrolls: Insight into Traditioning Processes and the Growth of.
Book Of Enoch Dead Sea Scrolls Pdf VideoThe Book of Enoch [Audiobook]
An additional prose passage provides one of the most ancient references to King David as the composer of the book of Psalms: And he wrote 3, psalms.
This copy of the book of Leviticus is written in the ancient Hebrew script used in First Temple times. The fragment shown here deals with the prohibition against the ancient cultic practice of sacrificing children to the Semitic god Molech, and the punishments for violating this ban.
Modern versions of these artifacts are still produced and used today. This particular fragment, from a Greek translation of the Minor Prophets discovered in the Cave of Horror at Nahal Hever, contains a prophecy of Micah about the End of Days and the rise of a ruler out of Bethlehem.
Non-biblical texts discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls offer us a tantalizing glimpse of life during the Second Temple period and the opportunity to understand the attitudes, desires and aspirations of the people of that time.
Most of the scrolls from the Qumran caves are religious writings from the Second Temple period. At other sites, the major finds were administrative and personal documents dating from the catastrophic Judean revolt against Rome in — ce.
This selected text describes the structure of leadership within this hierarchical, priestly society. The book of Enoch was not included in the canon of the Hebrew Bible.
The displayed fragment describes the heavenly revolt of the fallen angels, and their descent to earth to cohabit with the daughters of men and to reveal secret knowledge to mankind, a story hinted at in Gen.
The Dead Sea Scrolls contain extensive apocalyptic literature relating to the final messianic battle at the End of Days.
The text calls to mind the New Testament proclamation of the angel Gabriel concerning the new-born Jesus: The Book of War details an apocalyptic year battle between the forces of good and evil.
This fragment preserves a blessing to be recited by the leader of the surviving community upon their victory in the final battle, at the end of time: Documents from the Bar Kokhba caves are evidence of this tumultuous revolt in ce.
They consist of administrative, legal, and personal records, such as the papyrus shown here, as well as some religious texts, that tell stories of the daily lives of soldiers and of refugees seeking haven during the turmoil.
Silver tetradrachm from the Te'omim Cave, — ce Inscription on Rev. Using the most advanced and innovative imaging technology, each Scroll fragment is imaged in various wavelengths and in the highest resolution possible then uploaded to the Digital Library.
But to the few who were ready he taught the method given on the tablets, the Communions with the angels, which has been preserved through the ages in the Essene Brotherhoods and can still be practiced by man today.
This was a part of the esoteric teaching given by Moses and practiced in the Essene Brotherhoods five centuries preceding the Christian era.
In later Essene traditions the abstract idea of the Law was conveyed by the symbol of a tree, called the Tree of Life.
Moses had received a great revelation when he saw the burning bush in the desert. This represented two aspects of universal life: The warmth of the fire symbolized the fire of life, vitality in the material world.
The light, symbolizing man's consciousness, represented the light of wisdom as opposed to the darkness of ignorance in the immaterial universe.
Together they represent the whole universe and the idea that man in the center draws life and vitality from all the forces of the cosmos.
The Essenes symbolized this teaching in their Tree of Life which pictured to them in a concrete form that man was a unity of energy, thoughts and emotions and a unit of life force constantly communing with the totality of energies in the universe.
Moses wished to see man living in harmony with the laws which govern all these energies inside and outside man, and to become conscious of them and utilize them in every moment of life.
In his study of the totality of the Law, Moses attained an intuitive knowledge of the origin of the world and the beginning of all things.
It was from this beginning of all things he derived the laws for daily life. He learned that all things are parts of the whole, put together according to law; and the seven elements or basic forces of life appeared in seven great cycles of creation, one element in each cycle.
He grouped the days of the week into a corresponding cycle of seven, considering each day to correspond to a different one of the elements.
This was symbolized in Essene traditions by the seven-branched candlestick, the candles of which were lit every seventh day, the sabbath, to remind man of the seven cycles and the seven basic forces of the visible world and the seven basic powers of the invisible world of man's consciousness.
The three periods of Moses' life, in which he discovered the Law and its manifestations, represent the three periods into which nearly every man's life can be divided.
The first, Egypt, has been called the period of bondage, of the darkness of ignorance, when the free flow of vital energy is obstructed by ignorance and false values.
Mankind's Egypt, his slavery, consists in the totality of his deviations from the Law. The second period in Moses' life corresponds to the desert in an individual's life when his false values fall away and he sees nothing but emptiness ahead of him.
It is in this period man most urgently needs inner guidance that he may find his way back to the Light, the Law. The third period, the Exodus, is possible for every man.
There is always the Light showing the way to the exodus. Man's Egypt of bondage is never eternal. The Exodus under Moses lasted forty years, but it was only a beginning on the path of intuition, the path of learning to live in harmony with the laws of life, of nature and the cosmos.
An exodus for humanity can only be accomplished through the cumulative efforts of many people over many generations. But it can be accomplished and it will be accomplished.
There is always a Canaan, which is not a mythical utopia, but a living reality. The exodus is the path that leads toward Canaan, the path that Moses trod, the path to which the Essene practices light the way.
The Essene Tree Of Life Man has appeared to realize, as far back as records exist, that he was surrounded by invisible forces. In culture after culture of the past he has used a certain symbolism to express his relationship to these forces in the midst of which he moves.
This mystical symbol which has been imbedded in almost all religions and occult teachings is called the Tree of Life.
In outer legend and inner wisdom man's deepest intuitions have focused about it. It was considered by Zoroaster as the law itself and was the center of his philosophy and way of thinking.
The Essenes called it the Tree of Life. To the earlier concepts of the Tree the Essenes added what the ancient writers called Angelology.
This Science of the Angels was brought forth by the Essenes at their brotherhood in Palestine. Their angels were the forces in the universe.
It was known by many of the ancient peoples that these invisible forces were a source of energy and power, and that man's life was sustained by contact with them.
They knew that to the degree man was able to utilize these forces, he would move forward in his individual evolution in body and spirit, and as he put himself in harmony with them, his life would prosper.
Certain of the people not only knew of these forces but had specific methods of contacting and utilizing them. In many lands these forces were considered to be of two kinds, good and evil, and eternally opposed to each other.
Zoroaster in his Zend Avesta described the Ahuras and Fravashis as the good forces forever battling with the evil Khrafstras and Devas.
The Toltecs in Mexico and Central America held a world picture in which the good forces were called the Army of Quetzalcoatl, the Plumed Serpent, and the evil forces were the Army of Tezcatlipoca, the Jaguar.
These two armies were shown in the Toltec pictographs as being in continual conflict with each other. In the Zoroastrian and Toltec concepts destructive forces were always fighting the constructive ones.
The concept of the Essenes differed from these and other world pictures in that it recognized only the positive and constructive forces in the universe.
The Essene angels correspond to the good forces of Zoroaster, the Ahuras and Fravashis, and to the good forces of the Toltecs, the Army of Quetzalcoatl.
It was held to be man's role in the universe to so strengthen the good, positive forces that the evil negative ones would be overcome and disappear from the earth.
The Essene Tree of Life represented fourteen positive forces, seven of them heavenly or cosmic forces and seven earthly or terrestrial forces.
The Tree was pictured as having seven roots reaching down into the earth and seven branches extending up toward the heavens, thus symbolizing man's relationship to both earth and heaven.
Man was pictured in the center of the tree half-way between heaven and earth. The use of the number seven is an integral part of the Essene tradition which has been transmitted to Western cultures in various outer ways, such as the seven days of the week.
Each root and branch of the tree represented a different force or power. These were the Essene angels of the visible and invisible worlds.
In ancient Hebrew and Medieval literature these heavenly and earthly forces or angels were given names, Michael, Gabriel and so on; and they were pictured in religious art as human figures with wings and clad in flowing robes, such as in the frescoes of Michael Angelo.
Man, in the center of the Tree, was seen to be surrounded as in a magnetic field, by all the forces, or angels, of heaven and earth. He was pictured as in the meditation posture, the upper half of his body above the ground and the lower half in the earth.
This indicated that part of man is allied to the forces of heaven and part to the forces of earth.
This concept closely parallels that of Zoroaster who represented the universe as a framework of realms with man in its center and the various forces above and below him.
It also corresponds to the Toltec ritual performed on the steps of their pyramids with man in the midst of all the forces. This position of man in the center of the Tree, with the earthly forces below him and the heavenly forces above, also corresponds to the position of the organs in the physical body.
The gastric and generative tracts in the lower half of the body, being instruments of self-preservation and self-perpetuation, belong to the earthly forces.
Whereas the lungs and brain, in the upper half of the body, are the instruments of breathing and thinking and thus connect man with the finer forces of the universe.
Contact with the angelic forces represented by the Tree of Life was the very essence of the daily life of the Essenes. They knew that to be in harmony with these forces they must make conscious effort to contact them.
The Essenes were spoken of by the ancient writers as an extremely practical people. Their concepts were not just theories; they knew exactly how to be continually aware of the forces about them and how to absorb their power and put them into action in their daily lives.
They had the deep wisdom to understand that these forces were sources of energy, knowledge and harmony by which man can transform his organism into a more and more sensitive instrument to receive and consciously utilize the forces.
Furthermore, they considered that to put himself into harmony with the forces of the Heavenly Father and the Earthly Mother was man's most important activity in life.
The characteristics of each one of the different forces was very clear to them and they knew what the force meant in each individual's life and how it should be utilized.
They also understood the relationship between the forces. They considered that each heavenly force has an earthly force corresponding to it and each earthly force a corresponding heavenly power.
These corresponding heavenly and earthly forces were placed on the Essene Tree of Life diagonally across from each other, one above and one below man.
A line drawn between any two corresponding forces consequently passed directly through man in the center of the Tree. The forces which correspond with each other, above and below, are as follows: These correlations showed the Essenes that when an individual contacts any earthly force he is also in touch with a certain heavenly power.
This enabled them to understand how necessary it is to be in perfect harmony with each and every one of the forces and angels, both in the visible and invisible worlds.
The symbolical Tree of Life made it clear to the people how inseparably they are linked to all the forces, cosmic and terrestrial, and it showed them what their relationship is to each.
The Essene Communions I. The Communions show how each of these forces is utilized in man's body and consciousness. The Communions are said to have been originated by Esnoch, or Enoch, and were again brought forth by Moses to Esrael, the elect of the people, on the two stone tablets he first brought down from Mount Sinai.
The second set of tablets he brought down contained the Ten Commandments, the outer teaching, which he gave to the rest of the people, Israel.
But the small minority, Esrael, or the Essenes, from that time on, held their communions morning and evening, to the earthly and heavenly forces, regulating their lives according to the inspiration received from them.
The first is to make man conscious of the activities of the different forces and forms of energy which surround him and perpetually flow toward him from nature and the cosmos.
The second is to make him aware of the organs and centers within his being which can receive these currents of energy.
The third is to establish a connection between the organs and centers and their corresponding forces so as to absorb, control and utilize each current.
The Essenes knew that man has different bodily systems to absorb the different energies from food, air, water, solar radiations and so on; and they knew that each individual must control and utilize these powers for himself through his own conscious efforts, and that no one could do it for him.
The Communions were practiced each morning and evening, a different earthly force being meditated upon each morning upon arising, and a different heavenly force each evening before retiring, each day of the week.
This made a total of fourteen communions during each seven day period. At each of the Communions the designated force was concentrated upon, contemplated and meditated upon so that its power could be absorbed and consciously utilized in whatever intensity was required.
An explanation of the purpose of each Communion follows: The Earthly Mother-Saturday Morning. The purpose of this Communion was to establish unity between man's physical organism and the nutritive forces of the earth.
This was accomplished by contemplating the different food substances and realizing that the body is formed of the elements of the earth, and is nourished with those elements through plant life.
This teaches the meaning and importance of the natural foods of the earth supplied by the Earthly Mother in harmony with the laws governing terrestrial life.
Through this man learns of the paramount role of natural foods in his health and vitality and he becomes conscious of the processes of metabolism within him.
He learns, furthermore, how to receive and absorb the powerful energies derived from foods and how to conserve those energies in his body.
He thus gradually develops the ability to assimilate perfectly and utilize all the nutritive substances he eats and the energies in them; thus he is able to derive more sustenance from a given amount of food.
This Communion was one of the principal instruments by which the Essenes maintained such remarkable physical health. The Angel of Earth-Sunday Morning.
The Earthly Mother's Angel of Earth was the power of generation and regeneration. A central idea of the Essenes, similar to that of Zoroaster, was to create more and more abundant life.
The purpose of the Communion was to transform the generative powers in life into the regeneration of the human body.
They conceived this power in man to be the same natural force as the generative powers of nature in the top soil, which creates the vegetation of the earth.
This Communion therefore relates to the surface of the earth where things germinate, and to the power of fertility and the glands and organs of generation.
It taught the importance of the life-generating powers of the soil and of the regenerative force of sexual energy in the glandular system.
It made man conscious of the life generating forces in and around him, enabling him to be more receptive in absorbing this great power, and mastering, directing and utilizing it.
The Essenes' extraordinary faculty of self-regeneration was primarily due to their transforming sexual energy through the practice of this Communion.
The Angel of Life- Monday Morning. This Communion was dedicated to the life, health and vitality of the human organism and that of the whole planet and brought about a dynamic unity between them.
It taught man the role of vitality in his well being and made him conscious of all the innumerable activities of the life force in and around him, enabling him to direct it to any part of his body in the intensity required.
It gave the Essenes their astonishing ability to absorb life force especially from trees and forests. The Angel of Joy-Tuesday Morning.
All forms of beauty were joyously contemplated in this Communion in order to make man conscious of the beauties of nature and the joy within himself in every part of his being.
This faculty of absorbing joy from the beauties of nature, sunrises, sunsets, mountains, flowers, colors, aromas and so on was one of the means by which the Essenes attained the inner harmony and serenity which so impressed their contemporaries.
The Angel of the Sun-Wednesday morning. The Essenes meditated on the Sun as a great living force in terrestrial nature, an ever-present source of energy without which there would be no life on earth, in the ocean or in the atmosphere.
They meditated on the effect of solar rays which do not stop at the surface of the body but penetrate the organism at the point where the solar plexus is located, bathing the body and the nervous system in the radiation of the Sun.
This point is the oldest unity in the human organism. The purpose of this Communion was to become receptive to the solar energies and establish a perfect unity between the self and the sun and distribute its power throughout the body.
By the Essenes' use of this method certain abnormal conditions were frequently cured in a way that seemed miraculous to the early historians.
The Angel of Water-Thursday Morning. The Essenes considered the circulation of water in nature to correspond to the circulation of the blood in the body.
They knew all organisms as well as their foods consist largely of water, which is also essential to life on earth. The perfection of the organism depends upon the quality of the blood, and in like manner the perfection of the physical environment depends upon the quality of the water available.
In this Communion all forms of water were contemplated, rivers, creeks, rain, the sap in trees and plants and so on, establishing as a living reality the unity between the waters of the body and the waters of the planet, thereby making it possible to direct the blood stream to any part of the body or withdraw it at will.
This power enabled the Essenes to cure many conditions otherwise remedied only by long and arduous treatment.
It was one of the reasons the Essenes had such complete self -mastery and an almost unbelievable resistance to pain. Angel of the Air-Friday Morning.
The purpose of this Communion was to make man conscious of the dynamic unity between air and life and that respiration is the link between the organism and the cosmos, that where there is life there is breath, the cessation of one meaning the cessation of the other.
Thus the atmosphere in surrounding nature and the air within the body have a stupendous role in health and vitality.
This Communion was accompanied by a certain deep rhythmic breathing enabling the Essenes to absorb specific energies from the atmosphere and establish a correlation of the self and the universe.
These Communions with the Earthly Mother and her Angels were the source from which the Essenes derived their particular way of living, their eating, cold water ablutions, sun bathing, breathing and so on, described by their contemporaries, Josephus, Philo and Pliny, with such astonishment.
In the same way that the seven mornings of the week were devoted to the forces of the visible world, the seven evenings were given to the powers of the invisible realms, or the Angels of the Heavenly Father.
The Heavenly Father-Friday Evening. This Communion with the Heavenly Father, the Creator, the Light, the Ahura Mazda of Zoroaster, was the Essenes' central communion, dedicated to the totality of cosmic laws and to the realization that the universe is a process of continuous creation in which man must take his part by continuing the work of the Creator on earth.
The purpose of the Communion is to teach man the importance of union with the eternal and boundless cosmic ocean of all the superior radiations from all the planets, to make him receptive to these powers so that he may attain cosmic consciousness, enabling him to unite himself with the cosmic currents.
Through this he can develop the creative abilities within him to the utmost and learn to use the creative principle in his life and surroundings.
The Essenes knew that only when man does this can he reach his final goal, union with the Heavenly Father, the ultimate aim of all Essenes and the underlying purpose governing all their actions, feelings and thoughts.
The Essenes considered that the purpose of the universe can only be eternal life, immortality; and that this can be achieved by man if he progressively creates the preconditions of his advance to higher and higher degrees of his individual evolution.
They held that there was no limit to this progress since the cosmos is an inexhaustible store of energies available to man as he perfects his receptive organs and centers.
Through this Communion man can arouse his intuitive knowledge of the eternity of life in the universe and his own unity with this eternal life and the whole cosmic order.
Through it he can learn the importance of overcoming gravity in the earthly currents of thought and become conscious of the superior currents' activity and role in the individual's and the planetary evolution.
This overcoming of gravity and absorbing and utilizing the superior currents from this and all other planets was the highest mystical accomplishment of the Essenes.
This Communion was dedicated to all the great things which have been created by human labor, the great masterpieces of literature, art, science, philosophy and everything man has created as a superstructure on nature, the great values brought forth by previous generations and inherited by the present one.
The purpose of the Communion was to teach the importance of creative work and its paramount role in the individual's evolution. It was also to enable him to absorb energies and power from the creative works of mankind, all of its masterpieces, and to use this power in all manifestations of his consciousness.
In the Essene Brotherhoods everyone carried on creative work of some kind, whether in the improvement of himself, the Brotherhood or mankind.
The Essenes considered creative work the most adequate expression of love. The Angel of Peace-Monday Evening. The Communion with the Angel of Peace was dedicated to man's deep inner intuition of peace within himself and with all the infinite universe.
In the Essene concept peace is one of the most valuable treasures of man and unless he realizes its true meaning he cannot have spirituality, without which his life can have no meaning.
It was held that man's most immediate duty is to create peace within himself and with everything around him; and that the work of peace begins inside himself.
The Essenes utilized all sources of peace in the universe and transmitted them to the world, one manifestation of which was in their universal greeting, "Peace be with you.
The Angel of Power-Tuesday Evening. The Essenes conceived of the whole universe as a cosmic ocean of life in which currents of cosmic power are continually uniting all forms of life on all planets and connecting man with all other organisms.
The Communion made man conscious of these Cosmo vital forces surrounding him and within him. By becoming receptive to their activity he can absorb them through his nervous system and utilize them in every department of his life.
The Essenes were able to absorb and utilize these currents to a remarkable degree. The Angel of Love-Wednesday Evening.
Love was considered by the Essenes to be the highest creative feeling and they held that a cosmic ocean of love exists everywhere uniting all forms of life, and that life itself is an expression of love.
The purpose of the Communion is to teach man the importance and meaning of these superior currents of feeling in himself and in the surrounding universe; and to make him conscious of and receptive to them as a powerful source of energy and power which he can concentrate and direct in all manifestations of his consciousness.
In the concept of the Essenes, any individual who hurts any form of life outside himself hurts himself equally, because of the dynamic unity of all forms of life in the cosmic ocean of love.
The Essenes themselves expressed strong feelings of love to the whole of mankind, near and far, and to all forms of life on earth and in infinite space.
This love which they felt was the cause of their living together in brotherhood communities; it was why they distributed all their surplus of food to the needy and went out of their way to teach the ignorant and heal the sick.
They expressed their love through deeds. This faculty of attracting and sending forth superior currents of feeling was one of their great mystical accomplishments.
The Angel of Wisdom-Thursday Evening. Thought was held by the Essenes to be both a cosmic and a cerebral function. They considered there is a cosmic ocean of thought pervading all space containing all thought, which is the highest and most powerful of all cosmic energies, never perishing and never lost.
By tuning in to all thought currents in the universe and the thought of all great thinkers of the past through communion with the Angel of Wisdom, man developed his ability to create powerful harmonious thought currents and attain intuitive knowledge and wisdom.
Through the application of this Communion the Essenes had great ability to send and receive powerful thought currents. The morning Communions refer to the vitality of the body and their cumulative effect is the gradual strengthening and revitalizing of every organ of the body through the conscious control and direction of earthly forces.
The seven evening Communions are dedicated to the spiritual powers which govern man's higher evolution. Their cumulative effect is the revitalizing of the mind and all the superior forces within the individual, enabling him to receive and become attuned with all the higher oceans of love, life and thought, thus gradually developing all the superior potentialities of his being.
Each Communion of the fourteen represents a certain equilibrium between the man making it and the angel or force communed with. A third group of practices was held at noon each day of the week.
These were contemplations calling upon the Heavenly Father to send His Angel of Peace to harmonize the different departments of man's life.
So important was peace to the Essenes that they had a special teaching concerning it which they called the Sevenfold Peace. The practice of the fourteen Communions brings about an inner experience or expansion of consciousness enabling the individual to make conscious use of the invisible forces of nature and the cosmos.
The Sevenfold Peace shows the practical application of this expanded consciousness in the individual's daily life in its relationship to the different aspects of life.
These Peace Contemplations were practiced in the following order. Friday noon-Peace with the Body.
Thursday noon-Peace with the Mind. Wednesday noon-Peace with the Family. Tuesday noon-Peace with Humanity. Monday noon-Peace with Culture.
Sunday noon-Peace with the Earthly Mother. Saturday noon-Peace with the Heavenly Father. An explanation of these seven departments of the individual's life is given in a subsequent chapter.
Every seventh day, the Essene Sabbath, was consecrated to one of the aspects of peace and communal gatherings were held, separate from the individual contemplations.
These gatherings were for the purpose of considering the practical collective application of the particular peace being concentrated upon on that Sabbath.
This was the transcendental Peace, containing all other aspects of peace. Thus every phase of man's life was given consideration, one after the other.
Such was the Essene pattern of Communion with the cosmic and natural forces and contemplation with the aspects of peace that showed them how to put the forces into practice in their individual lives.
We shall not find its equivalent in any other system. It has the wisdom of eight thousand years behind it.
It is not merely a form or a ritual; it is a dynamic, intuitive experience. It can establish the unity of mankind. The Essenes practiced these Communions and Contemplations more than two thousand years ago.
We can practice them today. The Essenes considered that the development of these receptive centers was an essential part of the individual's evolution.
They also considered that systematic and daily practice of a correct method was necessary for the development of them.
The first part of their Communions taught the meaning and purpose of each of the fourteen terrestrial and cosmic forces. The second part was the actual practice or technique by which this apparatus can be developed.
Through this practice the subtle centers of the body can be opened and access given to the universal storehouse of cosmic forces.
The purpose of this was to put the organs of the physical body in harmony with all beneficial currents of the earth and the cosmos, so that they can be utilized for the evolution of the individual and the planet.
Many early peoples had a similar technique. The Sumerians, the Persians at the time of Zoroaster, and the Hindus in their yoga systems, nine of which have survived the original fourteen, all sought to attain the same ends.
The technique which the Essenes handed down by word of mouth from generation to generation, through thousands of years, was given to the neophyte in their Brotherhoods only after seven years' probationary training had been completed.
He then had to take the Great Sevenfold Vow, never to reveal the communions without permission, and never to use the knowledge and power gained through them for material or selfish purposes.
He then thought reverently about the angel or force with which he was about to commune, contemplating its meaning and purpose in his own life and body, as taught in the first part of the Communions.
Following this prologue he spoke the actual words of the Communion. To commune with the Earthly Mother, on Saturday morning, he says,.
When he finishes these words he contemplates edible fruits, grains or plants and feels the currents of the Earthly Mother flowing in him and intensifying and directing the metabolism of his body.
On Sunday morning he communes with the Angel of Earth, saying: As he says this he contemplates the life-generating soil and the growing grass, feeling the currents of the Angel of Earth transforming his sexual energy into regenerative forces.
On Monday morning he communes with the Angel of Life in the following words: He now contemplates trees as he feels himself absorbing vital forces from trees and forests.
The words of the Tuesday morning Communion with the Angel of joy are: He then feels himself absorbing vibrations of joy from the beauties of nature as he contemplates the colors of sunrise, of sunset, the song of a bird or the aroma of a flower.
The Wednesday morning Communion to the Angel of the Sun uses these words: As these words are spoken he contemplates the rising sun and feels and directs the accumulated solar forces radiating through his solar center, located at the solar plexus, sending them to all parts of his body.
The Thursday morning Communion with the Angel of Water is made by saying: As he says this he contemplates the waters of the earth, in rain, river, lake, sea or anywhere, and the currents of the Angel of Water are felt intensifying and directing the circulation of the blood.
The one communing contemplates the atmosphere as he says this and breathes rhythmically. The words of the evening Communions with the Heavenly Father and his Angels follow.
The Friday evening Communion with the Heavenly Father begins by saying: This Communion in time brings union with the eternal and boundless cosmic ocean of all superior radiations from all planets, as cosmic consciousness is awakened and the individual is finally united with the Supreme Power.
As these words are said the individual contemplates union with the currents of thought of the superior planets and gains power to overcome the sphere of gravitation of earthly currents of thought.
The contemplation is upon bees at work, and the creative work of humanity in all spheres of existence is concentrated upon. The Communion on Monday evening with the Angel of Peace is made with these words: The individual now contemplates the crescent moon and the moonlight, invoking and visualizing universal peace in all spheres of existence.
The Tuesday evening Communion with the Angel of Power says: As he contemplates the stars, their radiations, and the cosmic ocean of Life, the individual feels the Cosmo vital forces from the stars being absorbed by the nervous system of the Acting Body.
The Wednesday evening Communion is with the Angel of Love. These are the words spoken: While this is being said the Feeling Body both sends and attracts superior currents of feeling to and from all beings on earth and all those in the cosmic ocean of Love.
Thursday evening is dedicated to the Angel of Wisdom who is addressed as follows: Superior currents of thought are then sent and attracted by the Thinking Body while the individual contemplates all thought on earth and in the cosmic ocean of thought.
The cumulative effect of the regular weekly repetition of each of these Communions enables the individual, sooner or later, according to his capacity, perseverance and the degree of his evolution, to absorb, utilize and direct these currents of energy in all manifestations of his consciousness, for his own higher evolution and that of mankind and the planet.
The Noon Peace Contemplations, dedicated each day to a different one of the seven aspects of Peace, were addressed to the Heavenly Father, requesting him to send the Angel of Peace to all, and then to send a certain one of the angels to strengthen each aspect of the Sevenfold Peace.
Friday noon Peace With the Body: Thursday noon Peace With the Mind: Peace With the Family: Tuesday noon Peace With Humanity: Monday noon Peace With Culture: The Communions with the Forces of the Visible Realms.
The Noon Peace Contemplations. And may He give His Sevenfold blessings upon thee, to everlasting Peace. Their Tree of Life and the Communions taught man his relationship with the fourteen forces of the visible and invisible worlds.
The Sevenfold Peace explains his relationship to the parts of his own being and to his fellow men, showing how to create peace and harmony in the seven categories of his life.
They considered that human life can be divided into seven departments, physical, mental, emotional, social, cultural, its relationship with nature and its relationship with the entire cosmos.
Man, it was held, has three bodies that function in each of these departments, an acting body, a feeling body and a thinking body.
The thinking body's highest power is wisdom. The feeling body's highest power is love. The acting body's function is to translate the wisdom of the thinking body and the love of the feeling body into action in an individual's social and cultural worlds and in his utilization of the terrestrial and heavenly forces.
The Sevenfold Peace explains the utilization of these powers and forces with the utmost clarity. Every noon a Peace Contemplation was held with one aspect of Peace; and every Sabbath was collectively dedicated to one, the entire cycle covering all phases of man's life being completed in seven weeks' time.
I - Peace With the Body. The word used by the Essenes to indicate the physical body, both in Aramaic and in Hebrew, signified the body's function, to act, to move.
This differs greatly from other concepts. The Greeks, for instance, exalted the body for its esthetic qualities, its proportions and beauty, and were unaware of any deeper purpose.
The Romans looked tipon the body simply as an instrument of strength and power for conquering nations, planting the Roman eagle in far lands.
The medieval Christians disdained the body, considering it the source of all man's troubles, a barrier between man and God.
The Essenes had a much deeper understanding than any of these. They knew that in the acting body, evolving through hundreds of thousands of years, are manifested all the laws of life and the cosmos; in it is to be found the key to the whole universe.
They studied it in relation to man's whole role in the universe, and their concept of that role was greater than any other which has ever been held.
They considered man has three roles: The acting body has its part to play in all three of these roles.
It is a Divine product, created by the law for the purpose of the Creator, in no way inferior to any other instrument of man, nor to anything else in the universe.
It is waiting for man to make conscious use of its terrestrial and spiritual energies. The Essenes knew that man is not an isolated being alone in the universe, but one among other beings on earth and on other planets, all of whom have acting bodies which are evolving even as is man's own.
All of these acting bodies are therefore related to each other and affect each other. Every individual's bodily health and vitality is consequently of the utmost importance both to himself and to all other beings on earth and on all other planets.
The daily practices of the Essenes were derived from this dynamic all-sided concept of the acting body as an integral part of the whole universe and their extraordinary health and vitality was a result of it.
Those who joined their Brotherhoods were trained to perfect the acting body in all three of its roles, and were taught how to adapt it to the constantly changing field of forces in which it lives and moves.
They were taught the effects on the organism of different foods and the different natural forces of earth, the sun, air and water.
They were required to follow certain rituals utilizing these forces, such as starting each day with a cold water ablution and exposing the body once every day to the solar rays.
Through practical experience they learned the vitalizing power of working in the fields and orchards and gardens. They learned how disease is created by deviations from the law and how to heal the diseases that result from the deviations.
They were taught the qualities and curative powers of different herbs and plants, of heliotherapy and hydrotherapy, and the proper diet for every ailment.
They were instructed in right breathing and in the power which thought holds over the acting body. They learned the material and spiritual value of moderation in all things, and that fasting was a way to regenerate the body and to develop the will and in this way to increase spiritual power.
These practices brought peace and harmony to the acting body. But undue importance was never attached to it. The consideration and care they gave it was solely to keep it in good health as an instrument through which they could perform acts of wisdom and love for their fellowman.
In this way the acting body participated in the evolution of the individual, of the planet and the cosmos, thus enabling the individual to become a co-creator with the law and with God.
This was the first peace practiced by the Essenes, peace with the body. II - Peace With the Mind. The quintessence of the teaching in the Sevenfold Peace was concentrated around peace with the mind, mind, in the Essene terminology, being the creator of thought.
The Essenes considered thought to be a superior force, more powerful than the force of either feeling or action, because it is the instigator of both.
The totality of an individual's thoughts was called his thinking body. The totality of the thoughts in all the hundreds of millions of thinking bodies around the surface of the earth forms the planetary thinking body; and the totality of all superior thoughts in the universe forms a cosmic thinking body, or a cosmic ocean of thought.
The Essenes considered an individual's thinking body, like his acting body, has three functions, an individual, a planetary and a cosmic function.
It's individual function is to utilize the power of thought to guide and direct the currents of feeling in the individual's feeling body, and the actions of his acting body.
The thinking body can do this because it penetrates through and though the feeling and acting bodies. The planetary function is to contribute noble and uplifting thoughts to the planetary thinking body.
An individual's thoughts form a force field around him comparable to the magnetic field surrounding a magnetic pole. Into this force field the individual's thoughts are constantly pouring and being sent out, and it is also receiving currents of thought from the planetary thinking body of which it is a part.
Every individual thus lives, moves, thinks, feels and acts in this surrounding planetary atmosphere of thought, to which he himself is constantly contributing.
He is responsible for the thoughts he contributes, for all the thoughts he sends out. The third function of the thinking body, its cosmic function, is not readily fulfilled.
The cosmic ocean of thought, of which the planetary thought atmosphere surrounding the earth is only an infinitesimal part, consists of all the thoughts in the universe superior enough to have become freed of the planetary forces attaching them to their particular planet.
Only those highest thought currents which have overcome the planetary gravitation of their planetary atmosphere become united with the infinite cosmic ocean of thought.
This cosmic ocean of thought represents the perfection of the law, the omnipotence of the law and the omnipresence of the law. It has always existed and it always will exist.
It is more ancient than any of the existing planets in the solar system, more ancient than the existing solar system itself, or than the galactic or ultragalactic systems.
Eternal and infinite it directs all the steps of the cosmic and planetary evolution in the infinite cosmic ocean of life. The cosmic function of each individual's thinking body is to create thoughts of so superior a quality that they can unite with this cosmic ocean of thought.
The Essenes considered that the thinking body is man's highest gift from his Creator. For it, and it alone, gives him the capacity to become conscious of the Law, to understand it, to work in harmony with it, to perceive its manifestations in all his surroundings, in himself, in every cell and molecule of his physical body, in everything that is, and to realize its omnipresence and omnipotence.
By becoming conscious of the Law, by understanding it, by acting in harmony with it, man becomes a co-creator with God; there is no greater or higher Value in the universe.
Through this most powerful force of thought, this greatest of treasures possessed by man, and his title to nobility, man has the ability and freedom to accomplish whatever he truly wants, to achieve anything to which he aspires that is in harmony with the Law, and thereby to live in the eternal perfection that is the Law.
If man thinks in harmony with the Law he can remedy whatever in harmony he has created in the past; he can recreate his thinking body, his feeling body and his acting body.
He can heal all diseases in his physical body and create complete harmony in his environment and world. But if the currents of thought in the thinking body are not in accord with the Law, nothing else can create harmony in the individual's world.
The Essenes knew that only a small minority of mankind make use of the great capacity of the thinking body. They knew that the majority use their thinking bodies quite haphazardly, unaware their thoughts can be used to build or to destroy.
An almost automatic succession of thoughts, ideas and association of ideas passes through their minds without conscious direction.
Yet even these drifting elements of thought can create powerful forces that go through and through the feeling body and the acting body, interpenetrating every atom and cell, throwing every particle of them into vibration.
From these vibrations radiations go out that are harmonious or inharmonious according to the nature of the thought. If man fails to become consciously aware of the Law, he deviates from it unknowingly for he is surrounded by fields of inharmonious forces prompting him to deviations.
These deviations create all the imperfections in his world, all the limitations and negations in his thoughts and feelings and physical well-being, in his environment, in society and the entire planet.
Every time man creates or accepts an inferior thought, he is accepting an inferior force into his world.
The inferior force, according to the strength of the thought, reacts on his feeling body. This sets up an emotional disequilibrium in his feeling body, which in turn reacts on his physical body.
This disequilibrium automatically causes further deviations, further inharmonies, further diseases in the feeling and acting bodies. And these in harmonies, these diseases, create an inharmonious atmosphere around the individual which affects the thinking, feeling and acting bodies of all others who are not conscious of the Law and do not know how to protect themselves from receiving all those inferior thoughts created by the individual's single deviation in thought.
So every individual who has an inferior thought, a limiting, negative or inharmonious thought, starts a chain reaction of deviations which spreads throughout the planet and the planetary worlds, causing even further deviations, negations, limitations and inharmonies.
This inharmony is contagious ' just as many diseases are contagious. But the great Essene masters taught man how to prevent these waves of inharmony, right at their source, before the first inharmonious thought is created.
They taught man the right way of thinking, the way of never deviating from the Law, never receiving or accepting into the consciousness any thought less than perfection.
These great masters also taught that man is free to work with the Law if he so desires, creating ever increasing harmony and perfection in his world and in the world outside of himself.
Man continually tries to evolve ways to better the conditions in which he lives. But he does this too often without regard for the Law.
He seeks peace and harmony by material means, technical evolution, economic systems, not knowing that the conditions of inharmony which he himself has brought into being can never be remedied by material means.
The ocean of suffering and inharmony humanity has created can only be destroyed when mankind sets into motion the law of harmony in his thinking body.
Only through complete cooperation with the Law can peace and harmony be brought to the planet. This is the teaching of the ancient Essenes in regard to peace with the mind.
The third peace of the Essenes, peace with the family, concerns harmony in the feeling body, harmony in the emotions. By the term family the Essenes meant those in the individual's immediate environment, the people he contacts in his daily life and thought, his family, relatives, friends and associates.
According to the Essene tradition harmony with these people depends upon the feeling body. The natural function of the feeling body is to express love.
Mankind has been told this over and over again by the great Masters, Jesus, Buddha, Zoroaster, Moses and the Prophets. He has been given the law that he should love his Creator with all his thinking, feeling and acting bodies.
Life in all its spheres, aspects and manifestations is the demonstration of creative love. Divine love is a great cosmic power, a cosmic function.
It is the law of all man's bodies, but it is expressed most powerfully through the feeling body. The feeling body consists of all the currents of feeling and emotions an individual experiences and sends out into the atmosphere about him.
Every feeling and emotion created by an individual becomes a part of the feeling atmosphere of earth, setting up a resonance of co-vibration with all similar feelings in the earth's atmosphere.
If an inferior feeling is sent out, its creator is immediately tuned in to all the similar inferior feelings in the earth's feeling body.
He thus opens the gate to a flood of destructive power which rushes in and seizes control of his feelings, and often of his mind, amplifying his own low feelings just as a loud speaker amplifies or intensifies sound.
This destructive force directly affects the individual's physical body. It affects the functioning of the endocrine glands and the whole glandular system.
It produces disease cells that lower vitality, shorten life and result in unlimited suffering. It is thus not surprising that statistics of nervous disorders and other diseases are so appalling in spite of all the hospitals, sanitariums, medical organizations, laboratories and the progress of hygiene and medicine.
Through his feeling body man has become an autointoxicating automaton, because of his deviation from the law, his acting without knowledge of the law, against it instead of with it.
The Essenes knew that there is a great deal of inharmony in the feeling body of almost everyone. By studying the feeling bodies of babies and primitive man they learned why.
The feeling body of a baby first registers the manisfestations of the infant's primitive instinct of self-preservation.
This instinct arouses three fundamental emotions: Fear arises from a sudden movement or noise; anger from Interference with the baby's freedom; love from the satisfaction of its hunger and needs.
Fear and anger are inferior feelings; the love feeling, while superior, in the baby is rudimentary. The baby's feeling body is a volcano of emotions, most of which are inferior.
Its thinking body has not begun to function. A primitive man has a similar feeling body. His emotions, likewise centered around the instinct of selfpreservation, are a powerful force completely dominating his embryonic thinking body.
In both child and primitive man the feeling body develops long before the thinking body. This is necessary to protect the physical body from danger and so preserve its life.
The instinct of self-preservation is a law of nature. Acting under it is in entire harmony with the law until man has evolved the power to think and reason his way out of danger.
But because feeling has functioned for so much longer a period of time than thinking, it tends to dominate thought even after the child is grown and the primitive man has become civilized.
In the mass of mankind today the feeling body rules the thinking body. This is the cause of man's first deviation from the law. Through the power of thought man can handle every situation in his life more adequately than through unthinking emotion.
But the actions of most people are far more often the expression of impulses in the feeling body than of reasoned thought. This results in a tremendous imbalance in his bodies.
Because adult civilized man has evolved to the point where he has the ability to think, thought should govern his actions. When he permits them to be controlled by emotion and feeling, as they were dominated in infancy, he throws all his powers out of rhythm, out of harmony.
This creates a regressive psychological condition in his whole existence. His deeds and actions as a consequence remain self-centered and egoistic like those of a child or primitive man.
But when he is no longer a savage or a child, he deviates from the law if he acts as a child or primitive man. His instinctive impulses can only serve evolutionary progress when controlled by the thinking faculties.
Nature has given man the capacity to think so he may bc able to understand its laws and direct his life in harmony with them. Man can reach a far higher degree of evolution through thinking than through living by instinct.
So when he continues to let his feeling body be the dominating power in his actions, he not only retards his own evolution but that of the planet.
If he makes no effort to understand the law but neglects it and consequently lacks knowledge of it, he has to create his own laws, small artificial laws, of self-centeredness and egoism; and these cause walls of separation between himself and the rest of the human family, between himself and nature and between himself and the Great Law, the Creator.
Man's first deviation from the law through the feeling body starts the long chain of deviations which cause all human inharmony and suffering on earth.
All the great teachers of humanity through thousands of years have warned man of the consequences of deviation from the law of the feeling body.
Buddha pointed out how it results in suffering, suffering for the individual and suffering for humanity. The Essenes showed that the feeling body can be the most powerful instrument for the production of health, vitality and happiness, and that through its right functioning in expressing love, man can create the kingdom of heaven in and around himself and the whole human family.
The Essene peace with the family is the Great Law in its expression of men's love toward one another, a law revealed to little children but often hidden from the minds of men.
IV - Peace With Humanity. The fourth peace of the Essenes referred to harmony between groups of people, to social and economic peace.
Book of enoch dead sea scrolls pdf -The dissertation is designed to address two basic areas: Given the large number of manuscript holdings in Ethiopia's monasteries and churches yet to be examined, this discussion underscores the need for further efforts towards the digitization of additional important witnesses of Ethiopic Enoch for the study of the text. Finally, several later Jewish sources from the Cairo Genizah reflect knowledge of the chapter in its final form, with the two angelic traditions joined together. The relationships to 1 Enoch, Jubilees, and other works from Qumran are evident, but prior evidence does not allow a more refined knowledge of their connections. The relationship to Genesis is explored, as well as previous claims of authorship by the Qumran sect of Essenes. The need for small-scale analysis arises from the fact that in the Third Parable many themes are inextricably woven together. Fragments, Manuscripts, Variance, and Meaning By:
They consist of administrative, legal, and personal records, such as the papyrus shown here, as well as some religious texts, that tell stories of the daily lives of soldiers and of refugees seeking haven during the turmoil.
Silver tetradrachm from the Te'omim Cave, — ce Inscription on Rev. Using the most advanced and innovative imaging technology, each Scroll fragment is imaged in various wavelengths and in the highest resolution possible then uploaded to the Digital Library.
For the first time ever, the Dead Sea Scrolls archive is becoming available to the public online. Hebrew Among the oldest known copies of Genesis, the fragment of the Scroll shown here contains the description of the first three days of the creation of the world.
Hebrew This copy of the book of Leviticus is written in the ancient Hebrew script used in First Temple times. Tefillin capsules from Qumran Cave 4.
Enoch 4Q Enoch a Date: Aramaic The book of Enoch was not included in the canon of the Hebrew Bible. Aramaic The Dead Sea Scrolls contain extensive apocalyptic literature relating to the final messianic battle at the End of Days.
Hebrew The Book of War details an apocalyptic year battle between the forces of good and evil. Autumn ce Roman Period Language: Hebrew 70 years after the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, a charismatic leader known as Shimon Bar Kokhba arose to lead a band of rebels intent on regaining Jewish autonomy.
The Book of Enoch plays an important role in the history of Jewish mysticism: There is little doubt that 1 Enoch was influential in molding New Testament doctrines about the Messiah , the Son of Man , the messianic kingdom , demonology , the resurrection , and eschatology.
Charles  Ephraim Isaac,  and G. Nickelsburg  in their respective translations and commentaries.
It is possible that the earlier sections of 1 Enoch had direct textual and content influence on many Biblical apocrypha , such as Jubilees , 2 Baruch , 2 Esdras , Apocalypse of Abraham and 2 Enoch , though even in these cases, the connection is typically more branches of a common trunk than direct development.
The Greek text was known to, and quoted, both positively and negatively, by many Church Fathers: Sir Walter Raleigh , in his History of the World written in while imprisoned in the Tower of London , makes the curious assertion that part of the Book of Enoch "which contained the course of the stars, their names and motions" had been discovered in Saba Sheba in the first century and was thus available to Origen and Tertullian.
He attributes this information to Origen,  though no such statement is found anywhere in extant versions of Origen.
Outside of Ethiopia , the text of the Book of Enoch was considered lost until the beginning of the seventeenth century, when it was confidently asserted that the book was found in an Ethiopic Ge'ez language translation there, and Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc bought a book that was claimed to be identical to the one quoted by the Epistle of Jude and the Church Fathers.
Hiob Ludolf , the great Ethiopic scholar of the 17th and 18th centuries, soon claimed it to be a forgery produced by Abba Bahaila Michael. Better success was achieved by the famous Scottish traveller James Bruce , who, in , returned to Europe from six years in Abyssinia with three copies of a Ge'ez version.
The copies remained unused until the 19th century; Silvestre de Sacy , in "Notices sur le livre d'Enoch",  included extracts of the books with Latin translations Enoch chapters 1, 2, 5—16, 22, and From this a German translation was made by Rink in Revised editions appeared in , , and In , Laurence also released the first Ethiopic text of 1 Enoch published in the West, under the title: Libri Enoch Prophetae Versio Aethiopica.
The text, divided into chapters, was soon considered unreliable as it was the transcription of a single Ethiopic manuscript. Two other translations came out around the same time: However, both are considered to be poor—the translation most of all—and is discussed in Hoffmann.
The first critical edition, based on five manuscripts, appeared in as Liber Henoch, Aethiopice, ad quinque codicum fidem editus, cum variis lectionibus , by August Dillmann.
It was followed in by a German translation of the book by the same author with commentary titled Das Buch Henoch, übersetzt und erklärt.
It was considered the standard edition of 1 Enoch until the work of Charles. His translation and commentary of the Ethiopic text already represented an important advancement, as it was based on ten additional manuscripts.
Charles published a new critical edition of the Ethiopic text, using 23 Ethiopic manuscripts and all available sources at his time.
The English translation of the reconstructed text appeared in , and the same year in his collection of The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament.
The publication, in the early s, of the first Aramaic fragments of 1 Enoch among the Dead Sea Scrolls profoundly changed the study of the document, as it provided evidence of its antiquity and original text.
The official edition of all Enoch fragments appeared in , by Jozef Milik. The renewed interest in 1 Enoch spawned a number of other translations: In a new edition of the Ethiopic text was edited by Michael Knibb, with an English translation, while a new commentary appeared in by Matthew Black.
In George W. Nickelsburg published the first volume of a comprehensive commentary on 1 Enoch in the Hermeneia series. Wossenie Yifru holds that Ge'ez is the language of the original from which the Greek and Aramaic copies were made, pointing out that it is the only language in which the complete text has yet been found.
This first section of the Book of Enoch describes the fall of the Watchers , the angels who fathered the Nephilim cf. This section is said to have been composed in the 4th or 3rd century BCE according to Western scholars.
The introduction to the Book of Enoch tells us that Enoch is "a just man, whose eyes were opened by God so that he saw a vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the sons of God showed to me, and from them I heard everything, and I knew what I saw, but [these things that I saw will] not [come to pass] for this generation, but for a generation that has yet to come.
It also tells us about the luminaries rising and setting in the order and in their own time and never change: How all things are ordained by God and take place in his own time.
The sinners shall perish and the great and the good shall live on in light, joy and peace. And all His works go on thus from year to year for ever, and all the tasks which they accomplish for Him, and their tasks change not, but according as God hath ordained so is it done.
And they were in all two hundred; who descended in the days of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon , and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it.
And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three hundred ells: And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against them and devoured mankind.
And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and fish, and to devour one another's flesh, and drink the blood.
And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Michael , Uriel , Raphael , and Gabriel appeal to God to judge the inhabitants of the world and the fallen angels.
Uriel is then sent by God to tell Noah of the coming cataclysm and what he needs to do. Go to Noah and tell him in my name "Hide thyself!
And now instruct him that he may escape and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may not see light.
And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons.
And to Gabriel said the Lord: Some, [ citation needed ] including R. Charles, suggest that "biters" should read "bastards", but the name is so unusual that some [ citation needed ] believe that the implication that is made by the reading of "biters" is more or less correct.
And the Lord said unto Michael: And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that is for ever and ever is consummated.
In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all generations.
Chapters 37—71 of the Book of Enoch are referred to as the Book of Parables. The scholarly debate centers on these chapters. The Book of Parables appears to be based on the Book of Watchers, but presents a later development of the idea of final judgement and of eschatology , concerned not only with the destiny of the fallen angels but also that of the evil kings of the earth.
It has been suggested that the Book of Parables, in its entirety, is a later addition. Pointing to similarities with the Sibylline Oracles and other earlier works, in , J.
Milik dated the Book of Parables to the third century. He believed that the events in the parables were linked to historic events dating from to CE.
According to this theory, these chapters were written in later Christian times by a Jewish Christian to enhance Christian beliefs with Enoch's authoritative name.
Knibb would continue this line of reasoning in later works. In , Robert Charles judged Chapter 71 to be a later addition. He would later change his opinion : It occurs in the "Noachian interpolations" lx.
He sits on God's throne xlv. Though Charles does not admit it, these passages betray Christian redaction and emendation. These passages seem to interrupt the flow of the narrative.
Hannah suggests that these passages are not, in total, novel interpolations, but rather derived from an earlier Noah apocryphon. In addition to the theory of Noachian interpolations, which perhaps a majority of scholars support, most scholars currently believe that Chapters 70—71 are a later addition in part or in whole.
The Son of Man is identified with Enoch. The text implies that Enoch had previously been enthroned in heaven. The parable also switches from third person singular to first person singular.
Charlesworth rejects the theory that chapters 70—71 are later additions. He believes that no additions were made to the Book of Parables. Four fragmentary editions of the Astronomical Book were found at Qumran, 4Q This book contains descriptions of the movement of heavenly bodies and of the firmament , as a knowledge revealed to Enoch in his trips to Heaven guided by Uriel , and it describes a Solar calendar that was later described also in the Book of Jubilees which was used by the Dead Sea sect.
The use of this calendar made it impossible to celebrate the festivals simultaneously with the Temple of Jerusalem. The year was composed from days, divided in four equal seasons of ninety-one days each.
Each season was composed of three equal months of thirty days, plus an extra day at the end of the third month. The whole year was thus composed of exactly fifty-two weeks, and every calendar day occurred always on the same day of the week.
Each year and each season started always on Wednesday , which was the fourth day of the creation narrated in Genesis , the day when the lights in the sky, the seasons, the days and the years were created.
Now I know that on [. Ohya's dream vision is of a tree that is uprooted except for three of its roots; the vision's import is the same as that of the first dream.
Ohya tries to avoid the implications of the visions. Above he stated that it referred only to the demon Azazel; here he suggests that the destruction isfor the earthly rulers alone.
Then he turned and left [. More dreams afflict the giants. The details of this vision are obscure, but it bodes ill for the giants.
The dreamers speak first to the monsters, then to the giants. Thereupon two of them had dreams 4and the sleep of their eye, fled from them, and they arose and came to [.
In] my dream I was watching this very night 7[and there was a garden. Someone suggests that Enoch be found to interpret the vision.
Thereupon his fellow Ohya declared and said to the giants, 13I too had a dream this night, O giants, and, behold, the Ruler of Heaven came down to earth 14[.
He came to them and the giants pleaded with him and sent him to Enoch 16[the noted scribe]. They said to him, Go [. And he said to him, He wil1 [.
After a cosmic journey Mahway comes to Enoch and makes his request. The giants awaig 8your words, and all the monsters of the earth.
Enoch sends back a tablet with its grim message of judgment, but with hope for repentance. In the name of God the great] 5and holy one, to Shemihaza and all [his companions.
Beste Spielothek in Blasweiler finden: casino news las vegas sun
|Sportfreunde lotte dortmund||992|
|Beste Spielothek in Mangelshorst finden||Moon casino las vegas|
|5 Line Jokers Spielautomat - Gratis Online-Spiel und Spielbeschreibung||Steam casino|
|Ned and his Friends™ Slot Machine Game to Play Free in BetSofts Online Casinos||677|